Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2022)                   JRIA 2022, 10(4): 31-58 | Back to browse issues page


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Khakbaz N, Rahimzadeh M, Foroutan M, Hamzehloo S. Comparative study of wood tectonic in Islamic architecture and handicrafts of Iran with emphasis on Isfahan (10-13 AH/16-19 AD). JRIA 2022; 10 (4) :31-58
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1575-en.html
Department of Architecture , Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamadan, Iran
Abstract:   (1818 Views)
Islamic architecture of Iran has passed one of the most prosperous periods in (10-13AH) centuries and the share of the geographical area of capital of Iran in most part of this period, that means the city of Isfahan, for many reasons in this glow has been very important. Although about this growth and prosperity and begin and end and its causes there is a difference of opinion, few people have doubted its existence. In this era until late Qajar period core form and art form were related and had common features in architecture and handicrafts and the coherence and harmony between them were evident. This relation is expressed with the concept of tectonic in the history of western architecture. The concept that theorists have defined it interaction between core form and art form in the context of historical culture. Gradually, this coherence and great thought with the arrival of new materials and construction methods were forgotten from late Qajar period and artistic and tectonic construction was reduced in buildings, and Iranian architecture faced a crisis. Criticism of Iranian today's architecture has been very pervasive in recent decades, Many researchers know the main cause of instability is in Lack of recognition of architectural history of Iran and its technical and artistic construction methods. On the other hand review of researches shows in the tectonic field less been paid to core form and art form of tectonics, so it is necessary to study it. The main research question is How tectonic conform and art form are related in architecture and handicrafts of Islamic Iran in (10-13H) centuries and their similarities and commonalities with the aim of understanding the tectonic rules of the Islamic architecture of Iran. for this reason in this article to recognize of wood tectonic based on interpretive epistemological paradigm, comparative reasoning and qualitative content analysis with explanatory orientation based on Gottfried Semper's theory has studied common wood tectonic features in architecture and handcraft in three levels, whole architecture (the whole building), intermedate level architectural components (column, roof edge and door and window) and small level in handcraft (pulpit, pen box, Kmanche, Tombak, mirror and boxes) in (10 – 13AH) centuries. Based on the theoretical basis of tectonics and considering that wood has been the most practical materials before the arrival of industrial steel in Iran and an important role had in the construction of load-bearing elements such as beams and columns and architectural and handicraft decorations. Wood tectonic is divided in terms of core forms to general forms and articulation and in terms of art forms
to decorative surface. This tectonic features in the collection of wooden handicrafts of Metropolitan museum, Isfahan cultural heritage organization and Islamic art sites is study that have the most affinity in terms of technique and art with wooden architecture in the mentioned period.Wood handicrafts are two types: wood handicrafts which are part of the furniture like the pulpit of Hazrat Abolfazl in Aran and Bidgol of Isfahan and handicrafts that produced as movable objects such pen box, Kmanche, Tombak, mirror and wooden decorative boxes. In wooden architecture on a large scale and wooden architectural elements (beams and columns, ceilings, roof edges and doors and windows) in the middle scale are examined tectonic components from the collection of buildings and wooden elements of this period. In some cases due to the scarcity of pictorial resources inevitably has been used from examples outside the geographical area of Isfahan but attention has been paid that this samples are comparable to effects that notable similarity have with the effects of Isfahan. Because Isfahan has been the capital of Iran, many exchanges has had different geographical areas of Iran and in this regard this utilization does not harm the results of the research. Studies and surveys show that some wooden handicrafts on a large and medium scale are similar with non-wooden architecture and elements such as windbreaks and minarets that most of this heterogeneity is on a large scale and in buildings with masonry materials. These cases have been studied in the sense that in identifying wood tectonic rules are very important. Comparative study of wood tectonic features in handicrafts and architecture in the mentioned period reveals that among core form (general forms and articulation) and art form, there are important similarities in handicrafts and architecture. Wood tectonic harmony is notable in handicrafts and architecture not only in terms of core form but also art form. Tectonic subscriptions that indicate the characteristics of technical and artistic construction in Iranian architecture indicates in Iranian architecture how the building begins and ends, articulation of surfaces and decorative surfaces in terms of formal-structure is done under tectonic rules. Formal-structural similarities of wood tectonic in three scales (macro, medium and micro scale) under the tectonic rules: exposure of form and space (connect to earth and sky), articulation (different materials joint, tongue and groove, sliding joint, wick corner, bar joint and convex corner joint) are tectonic technical principles and the rule of covering surfaces(mosaic surface, border, carving, and negative surfaces) are artistic rules that expresses same tectonic culture. Tectonic culture had similar construction manifestations in similar culture and similar construction techniques have used in different materials.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2022/01/25 | Accepted: 2022/05/6 | Published: 2022/12/31

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