Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2021)                   JRIA 2021, 9(3): 39-60 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mirahmadi A, Shajari M, Pirbabaei M T. Aesthetic of Visual Perception from the Ibn haysam's Perspective in architecture (case study: Jame Mosque of Esfahan). JRIA 2021; 9 (3) :39-60
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1243-en.html
Faculty of Architecture and Urban planning, Tabriz Islamic Art University
Abstract:   (5668 Views)
Ibn Haysam deals with how the process of visual perception and its relation to aesthetics in Almanazer thesis. He sees aesthetics as result of the interaction of 22 the particular visible properties in the process of perception. In this process, the external and internal forces interfere. The role of each particular visible property in this process is not the same. Some particular visible properties such as light and color alone, some other particular visible properties in combination with each other and some by being in general proportion, create beauty. In this research, the process of perception and aesthetic views of Ibn Haytham was analyzed and its role in architecture was investigated. The Jame Mosque of Esfahan has been studied as an example for better explain the issue and investigate the results. This mosque includes architectural thoughts and aesthetic approaches of different historical periods with a history of more than a thousand years. This research is of qualitative type and with descriptive-analytical method. For this purpose, first the information obtained from library studies and documentary sources is examined and with a comparative approach deals with evaluation and aesthetics analysis from Ibn Haytham's perspective in architecture .
Ibn Haysam separates sensation and perception in aesthetics analysis and he believes eyesight receives the form of visible objects, and perception is not always made by premium sensation. in addition to premium sensation, but also inference may be necessary for perception, the sense of sight is unable for it . Ibn Haysam defines three perceptual levels, according to how and type of perception, effective forces and Perceptible the particular visible properties: 1- Perception by Pure Sensation is perception premium through visual senses. the two properties of light and color, which expressing the form of objects and are inherent in objects, are perceived in perception by pure sensation. 2- Perception by Recognition deals with similarity or difference between the particular visible properties after receiving the form of objects with the visual senses. This similarity and difference cause perception of their intensity and weakness in light and color which is done with denotative. the situation, size and movement create based on the comparison between the components of an object or object with another object in the perception by properties like the shape. Also, in some cases, all the particular visible properties are perceived, which is done through denotative and comparison. Perception by recognition is done in light of the former knowledge and the use of patterns and symbols that they used to store in memory and the intervention of mind. 3- Perception by Inference is at a higher level than perception by recognition and in addition to the denotative and necessary comparison in perception by recognition, according to said Ibn Haysam, a higher comparison the second comparison (comparison with contemplation) is needed and by using judgement and inference, all abstract concepts and meanings that it existed in the particular visible properties of objects are perceived. According to the speed of mind performance and former audience's knowledge of phenomena, Ibn Haysam divides the perception into two groups "Glancing vision" and "Contemplation vision" and the two types of perception mentions for each group. In addition to analyzing Ibn Haytham's aesthetic views, this study investigates its application in architecture. The awareness of architects with the process of perception creates different perceptual levels for the audience and it cause his more interaction with the structure. On the other hand, effective the particular visible properties in aesthetics are generalizable in architecture and it helps the methodical analysis of visual perception.
Full-Text [PDF 1603 kb]   (874 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2020/04/13 | Accepted: 2021/02/22 | Published: 2021/09/22

References
1. Adajian, T. & Sartwell, C. 2016. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy: The Difinition of Art Beauty. Translated by Jafarian, F. Tehran: Qoqnoos.
2. Al-Farsi, Kamal-Din Al-Hassan. 1109/1698. The Tanqih Al-Manazir li-dhawi al-absar wa al-basa'ir [Manuscript]. Library, Museum and Document Center: Majlis-e Shura-e Islami (Islamic Consultative Assembly).
3. Al-Farsi, Kamal-Din Al-Hassan. 1347/1928. The Tanqih Al-Manazir li-dhawi al-absar wa al-basa'ir. Hyderabad Deccan. India: Bimutbieih Majlis Dayirih al-Maearif al-Othmanayh Alkayinh.
4. Aristotle. 1995. The Complete Works of Aristotle. The Revised Oxford Translation. Edition by Barnes Jonathan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
5. Bolkhari Ghehi, H. 2008. The Concept and The Meaning of Beauty in "Al-Manazer" and "Tanqhih Al-Manazer". Tehran: Iranian Academy of the Arts.
6. Bolkhari Ghehi, H. 2018. On Beauty Aestheticcs in Islamic ‭Wisdom and West Philosophy. Tehran: University of Tehran Press.
7. Dadkhah, P & Hatam, Gh. 2013. An Essay on Aesthetics of Sofeh Ostad Ornaments of Isfahan's Great Mosque. Naghsh Mayeh. Vol. 5. pp. 7-14.
8. Delfani, P. & Baniardalan, E. 2019. The Effect of Ibn Al-Haytham's Vision Theory on the Prevalence of Linear Perspective in the Renaissance Painting. The Journal of Islamic History and Civilisation. Vol. 14. pp. 159-183.
9. El-Bizri, Nader. 2005. A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazen's Optics. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. vol. 15. pp. 189-218 [DOI:10.1017/S0957423905000172]
10. Haji Qasemi, K. 2004. Ganjnameh; Daftar 7: Congregational Mosques (Part 1). Tehran: Rozaneh.
11. Hosseinzadeh, M. 2006. Havass-e Bateni az Manzar-e Marefat Shenasi. Marefat- Falsafi. Vol. 3. pp. 65-108.
12. Ibn Haytham, Muhammad Ibn Hasan. 1983. Ketab Al-Manazer: Books I-II-III. Translated by Sabra, A.I. Kuwait: al-Majlis al-watny lil-thaqafih va al-funun va al-adab (The National Council for Culture, Arts and Literature).
13. Ishaq, T. 2009. The Views of Aristotle, Ibn Sina, and Sadr al-Din Shirazi on the Soul and Its Faculties. Qom: Bustan-e Ketab.
14. Keshmiri, M. & Rahbarnia, Z. 2019. An Analysis of Pattern Making, Representation of Details, the Third Dimension of Objects in Iranian Paintings based upon the Islamic Optics. Theoretical Principles of Visual Arts. Vol. 3. pp. 5-20.
15. Lang, J. 2011. Creating architectural theory: the role of the behavioral sciences in environmental design. Translated by Einifar. A. R. Tehran: University of Tehran Press.
16. Nazif, M. 2015. Ibn Haytham and the Knowledge of Optics: Opinions and Discoveries. Translated by Movahhedi. F. Tehran: Tehran University & Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman.
17. Necipoglu, G. 2010. The Topkapi Scroll: Geometry and Ornament in Islamic Architecture. Translated by Qayyoomi. M. Tehran: Rozaneh.
18. Pirnia, M. K. 2007. Sabkshenasi Memari Irani. Tehran: Soroosh-e Danesh.
19. Plato. 1997. Plato Complete Works. Edited, with introduction and notes. by John M. Cooper. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company.
20. Plotinus. 2010. Plotinus: Plotins schristen‬. Translated by Lotfi, M. H. Tehran: Kharazmi.
21. Ragin, C. C. 2015. The Comparative Method: Moving beyond Qualitative and‭ Quantitative Strategies. Translated by Fazeli, M. Tehran: Agah. [DOI:10.1525/9780520957350]
22. Sabra, A.I. 1989. The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham. Books I-III, On Direct Vision. London: The Warburg Institute.
23. Shapoorian, R. 1970. Information about Ibn al-Haytham Basri and his famous work "Kitab Al-Manazer". Kherad & Kooshesh. No. 6. pp. 235-246.
24. Smith, A.M. 1992. From Sight to Light: the passage from ancient to modern Optics. The University of Chicago. United States of America.
25. Smith, A.M 2001. Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
26. TabaTabaei, S. 1999. Ibn Haytham, Islamic Physicist. Tehran: Rozaneh.
27. Tatarkiewicz, W. 2013. History of aesthetics. Translated by Fenderski, S. J. Vol. 1. Tehran: Nashr-e Elm.
28. Tatarkiewicz, W. 2017. History of aesthetics. Translated by Fenderski, S. J. & Ebadian, M. Vol. 2. Tehran: Nashr-e Elm.
29. Zalhosseini, A. 2007. Ibn Haysam & Manazer Science. Journal of Jurisprudence & History of Civilization. Vol. 3. pp. 63-82.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iran University of Science & Technology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb