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Moosavi S M, Ghouchani M. Impact of Qibla's direction on dynamics of movement in mosques with the study of Iranian-Islamic architectural styles. JRIA 2021; 9 (4) :45-58
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1387-en.html
University of Mazanaran
Abstract:   (3305 Views)
A brief reflection on the various works of Iranian-Islamic architecture in different periods illustrates the fact that the Iranian artist's architects have always sought the order in elements, components, spaces and buildings, and in order to achieve this important, the method There were several varieties (Bemanian and Avis-Nasab, 2012: 72). One of these methods is the use of the qiblah axis in the architecture of the mosques. What is nowadays visible in the architecture of contemporary mosques is the absence of the creation of spirituality in space for the guidance of the qibla. In this research, by revising the way of applying the Qibla axis to mosques of different periods of Iranian-Islamic architecture, it is analyzed on the qualitative role of the qibla and the attainment of ways of presenting the qualitative aspects of the qibla. Therefore, the research seeks to answer the following questions:
  • The research seeks to answer the following questions: What is the best pattern of movement path from the entrance to the qibla in mosques?
  • And what is the hierarchy of movement from the entrance to the qibla based on the spatial organization in mosques?
Therefore, the purpose of the research is to explain the role of qibla in the design of traditional mosques in terms of orientation, entry into the building, and placement along the qibla, the dynamics of the axis of the axis, in order to provide the basis for designing and constructing contemporary mosques. Therefore, this research has been conducted in a descriptive-analytical manner and based on library-documentary studies. Also, using the flow pattern and the relationship between activities in 18 samples of Iranian-Islamic architectural style mosques, the pattern of the path of human movement from entrance to altar, as well as the degree of proximity of each space to the other space in this motorway, has been studied.
Considering the comparison of architectural criteria to emphasize the direction of qibla in mosques, the index of periods and styles of Iranian-Islamic architecture can be said in Khorasani style, due to the form of the mosque's nave, using two criteria for increasing the number of columns and The elongation of the length of the plan defined the direction of the qibla. Architects in the style of Razi and then in the Azeri style, had the most attention to Qibla, and used more criteria to emphasize the Qibla axis in designing mosques. In the Isfahan style, the elongation of the yard with the increase in the number of columns helps the prayer in understanding the axis of the qibla. It can also be seen that the criteria for increasing the number of columns, the construction of the dome in the direction of the Qibla and on the altar, the longitudinal elongation of the plan, have the most effect on the direction of the Qibla axis in the mosque building. By studying contemporary mosques, we will find that these mosques do not have apparent effects due to the lack of theoretical principles, and the mosque's plan does not emphasize the Qibla direction. For this reason, the architecture of contemporary mosques has no effect on the principles and appearance of the Qibla axis.
Historical overview of the evolution of mosques since the beginning of Islam, indicates that paying attention to Qibla direction has played a significant role in the spatial organization of mosques in Iran. Also, observance of the principle of dynastic movement and space axis in the construction of mosques, has strengthened the direction of qibla and guided man from the interior to the outside and created the integrity of the foundation. In this research, based on the descriptive-analytical method and using the flow pattern and the diagram of the relationship of activities, the pattern of the path of human movement from the entrance to the altar, as well as the degree of proximity of each space relative to the other space in this motorway , Through a structural study of 18 samples of Iranian-Islamic style architectural mosques. Six patterns of eight flow patterns were defined as the pattern of movement from entrance to qibla in mosques, as well as motor hierarchy and the arrangement of spaces from entrance to qibla, using the activity relation diagram. A single pattern was developed for arrangement of spaces between the time of arrival and the Qibla, including: Entrance, Porch, Vestibule, Courtyard, Verandah, Shabestan, Mehrab.
The architects of traditional mosques show their thoughts in the form of geometric shapes and spaces, in which the sense of confidentiality, sanctity, immortality, and clergy preserves the space of the mosques, At the time of entering, they have been converted to a humane, perfected human being by directing and observing the dynamics of movement. In the design of contemporary mosques, not only the emphasis on the center of the qibla, but also the sanctity, spirituality and Islamic identity of these buildings have been lost.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2020/11/30 | Accepted: 2021/08/2 | Published: 2022/02/18

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