Volume 8, Issue 2 (Summer 2020 2020)                   JRIA 2020, 8(2): 17-38 | Back to browse issues page

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Hazehnejad M, akbari A, ansari S. Embodiment of Contradiction and Unison of Imaginary Ideas in Two Adjacent Sacred Buildings (Grand Mosque & Shrine of Sheykh Abdul Samad in Natanz). JRIA 2020; 8 (2) :17-38
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1299-en.html
Assistant Professor, Architecture Department, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (4536 Views)
Science there is unique qualities in Persian architecture which properly meet the hierarchical various needs of human beings as well as it can be reproduced as an examined pattern in today architecture, it is always a matter of question and reflection.
(Persian architecture is always a matter of question and reflection because it properly meets the hierarchical various needs of human beings, also can be reproduced as an examined pattern in today architecture. ???)
This is doubly important in the case of sacred spaces in Iran, which have always represented the pinnacle of the art of designing form and space in Persian architecture and today face challenges of nature and identity. Meanwhile, there is a variety of approaches to identify what researchers were interested in and sought out in the buildings of past Persian architecture; including: The formal investigation of the historic buildings, the recognition of the context conditions and the period of time in which architectural works influenced by political, economic and social affairs were built in the historical context, as well as the profound effects of geographical and climatic factors on the structure of buildings. Some others have also introduced the entanglement approach to the cultural manifestations of every people, including Iranians. By studying and recognizing literature, poetry and fine arts, which touches the lives of human beings, they study architectural works in this field. They consider understanding each one without the other, to be incomplete, inadequate, and impossible. This study, based on this hypothesis that what was produced by the Iranian artist, certainly has a form of embodiment of the imaginary forms of the mind-maker and the experience of every place simultaneously is a mental and physical experience, by asking about the concept of imaginary and metaphoric concepts in art and architecture, based on interpretivism philosophical basis and qualitative approach to research, by using the research design of discourse analysis and descriptive-analytic research method, tries to answering the questions of the research. The results of the discussion show that the imaginary forms and metaphorical meanings in construction of the mosque and the shrine of Sheikh Abdul Samad in Natanz can be classified in four respects: 1. Imaginary location of the building and its relation to the time; architects of both two buildings, in their eternal vision of time, have taken a position for two buildings which brings immortality to the mind. The collection is conveniently located in such a way that sustainability of the natural structures and interaction of cosmic forces in it, creates a microcosmic which eliminates the presence of time. These two buildings, adjacent to the 1700-year-old plantain and the 2000-year-old Qanat, as human-built nature, are located in such a way among natural structure, which strengthen the existing nature and show its complete conformation with the existing cosmic order. 2. Domes as the mirror of the sky and as the mirror of earth; what is the poetic aspect of the shrine’s dome, with its not so great proportions, is the metaphoric role of a mirror-like tile on it, which exactly reflects the natural blue sky of Natanz. Outer shell denies its existence and becomes a mirror to represent the sky. The dome of the shrine, which is a symbol for a mystical journey, loses its rigidity and points to light and transparency. But in the mosque, the principle is based on the lack of external identification, simplicity, and inwardness. The dome of the mosque, with its earthy color, is a mirror and a symbol of the earth. Also, the northern portico of the mosque is covered with turquoise tiles and represents the earth as the sky. 3. Metaphors of light and darkness; the cavities embedded in the dome of the mosque are located in such a way that during daylight hours that shines the light rays like a waterfall into the inside. What falls under the dome is the rain of light which represents the essence of God, but in the shrine, shining of light is opposite of the mosque. At this place, the dome space, in opposite of mosque dome which is dark, is full of light. The dome which is the symbol of heaviness, rigidity and pressure is based on light beams. And 4. Imaginary of materials and body of two building. In these two adjacent buildings, materials and surfaces possess their own languages. Bricks and soil represent poetic signs of the human being's essence, and therefore establish an intrinsic connection with their audience. On the other hand, the soil is one of the four classical elements in the thought structure of Persians, consequently, with its pretense of earth, becomes colorful and smells of sanctity. Water represents another classical element which presents in the building. Both two buildings are necessarily multisensory and thoroughly comprehend the sensory perceptions of their audiences. The proportions of the body of the building and its proximity to the human body have constructed a humble and humane complex. Since human being receives and comprehends the world with his body, Here the experimental world is organized and defined and meaningful around the body of individuals, In fact, the empirical world of humans, has two simultaneous centers: the body and the physique of Shrine and mosque. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that all of the elements, forms, spaces and the geometry of motifs in this complex represent the authentic experience of the tradition of construction in the land of Persia and based the ontological aspect, it comes from the way of being-the-world and settling of Iranians.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2020/07/13 | Accepted: 2020/07/13 | Published: 2020/07/13

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