Volume 8, Issue 1 (Spring 2020 2020)                   JRIA 2020, 8(1): 41-62 | Back to browse issues page

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Najafi M, Naghizadeh M, Toghyani S, Mohammadi M. The Compilation of Urbanism Texts by Using the Iranian's-Valuable Texts (With Emphasis on the Islamic Ethics). JRIA 2020; 8 (1) :41-62
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1271-en.html
department of architecture and urbanism, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan. Iran.
Abstract:   (5172 Views)
It is clear that each community should be have the specific urbanism science. Science localization is an obvious matter. This matter has motivated Iranian researchers, in urbanism field, to naturalize urbanism science having been imported to Iran. One method for producing or indigenizing urbanism texts in Iran, especially in recent years, is Utilization of Iranian-valuable texts. There are high valuable-native texts that could be reused for compilation new texts in urbanism field. So far, urbanism researchs have been done that inspired from Iranian-valuable text, such as "Nahj_al-Balagha", "Shahnameh of Ferdowsi", "Hafez's Divan", "Mosibatname of Attar", "Nasir Khusraw's Safarnama", "Haft-Peikar of Nezami" and "Ibn Kaldun's Moghadame", but none of these researchs were expressed a systematic method. However, this article suggests a specific method to use old texts for creating new urbanism texts. In other words, the main aim of this article is presented an efficient method for Using the Iranian's-Valuable Texts in order to compile new urbanism texts. In this article, "Islamic ethical texts" have been selected for better cognition of suggested method and as a case study too. Ethical texts don't directly mention about urban and urbanism, while explain the best ways of life and relationships in societies. Three questions are intended to be answered here, which are following bellow: 1. What is the proper method of using the Iranian's-Valuable Texts for writing the new urbanism texts? 2. How this method  would be applied in different ethical texts? and finally, 3. which kind of urbanism texts would be written by this method?  Therefore, it can be said that this paper is a methodology article.
The usage of primary text for creating new text is a theory that is called "Intertextuality". However, Intertextuality has not been used here. Because it is not coincident to Iranian culture. A native technique for doing this research is needed. Hence, after many researches among the Iranian techniques, the suitable technique has been found which had called the science of rhetoric (Balaghat) and the science of rhetorical embellishment (Badi). There were about sixteen literary techniques and figures of speech in Balaghat and Badi science. But only one of them, "Eghtebas" or "adaptation", has been selected as the chosen method in this article, as it has the most complete definition in compare to fifteen remained figures. furthermore, it has become quite operationally in other fields as literature and art. The first step in adaptation is selection of the original text. In this regard, it's necessary to consider somethings such as being valuable of the first text, similarity between the culture of the first text and  the new one, timeless and placeless contents of the original text and finally, convertible subject of the original text to the second text. Texts with content of "Islamic ethics" have been selected as a subject of old-valuable text which have the whole of mentioned considerations.
In the theoretical part, two subjects are defined: The ethical texts and different types of Eghtebas. The ethics have an old and strong precedence in Iran's history. The goal of ethical texts is personality prosperity and after that social and urban prosperity. Four different Islamic ethical texts are introduced. These four types are based on four-different definition about ethics. They are included: 1-Mystisim ethics, 2-philosophy ethics, 3-narative ethics and 4- literary ethics. "Mysticism ethics texts" are based on "Intuition". "Philosophy ethical text" are base on "wisdom", "Narrative ethical text" are based on revelation and "literary ethical texts" are based on "expediency". Then, different kinds of Eghtebas are explained. In major division, Eghtebas has three different types; "dramatic changes", "moderate changes" and "no changes". In minor division of Eghtebas, "dramatic changes" are included: "Re-created", "Revision", "Using title" and "Amiq". Also "moderate changes" are included: "Re-writing", "Selective writing" and "Abridgment".
 
The results answer to three questions that previously mentioned.
-Firstly, four kinds of Eghtebas are explained in relation with four ethical texts by using the inference and logical reasoning method. The new texts of urbanism would be adopted base on the ethical texts. It seems that almost all species of the Eghtebas species are usable for the four types of ethical texts. Althoug, their relation has been shown with "suitable", "unsuitable" and "allowable" position. For every type of the ethical texts, there is a more appropriate Eghtebas that is included: "Re-created" for usage from "Mysticism ethics, "Revision" for "literary ethics", "Re-writing" for "Philosophy ethics" and "Selective writing" for "Narrative ethics".
-Secondly, the writer of urbanism text can extract word, meaning, subject, writing form and type of language from the original text and reuse them with three positions of "no changes", "dramatic changes" ("Re-created", "Revision", "Using title" and "Amiq") and "moderate changes" ("Re-writing", "Selective writing" and "Abridgment") in urbanism text.
-Finally, the new urbanism texts can have different topics such as theoretical and philosophical foundations, normative theories, qualitative features, utopia and urbanism history.
Full-Text [PDF 5588 kb]   (895 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2020/05/31 | Accepted: 2020/05/31 | Published: 2020/05/31

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