Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2021)                   JRIA 2021, 9(1): 63-84 | Back to browse issues page

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Kakizadeh M A, Naseri N, Dabbagh H. Physical and Functional Typology of Shanashir in Historical Fabric of Bushehr Port to Identify Factors of These Spaces. JRIA 2021; 9 (1) :63-84
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1159-en.html
Persian Gulf University
Abstract:   (4288 Views)
The historical Fabric of Boushehr has a high visual form and performance capacity that has been very influential in the urban landscape. So many special elements and factors can be found in architecture and urbanism of the Boushehr that even is not seen in other neighboring cities with same climate. Shanashir is one of the visual capacity that is vernacular in this place. Today this architectural and vernacular factor is ignoring in construction and it has been forgotten.
Literature review:
The meaning of the Shanashir word is not available in Persian dictionaries. Some scholars believe that this word is equivalent to Shansheel in the Arabic language. Shanashir has been used in architecture of various countries, including Arab countries, North Africa, parts of Europe such as Turkey and Spain and South Asia. Traditional version of Shanashir had many important environmental functions and specific parameters for design through recognized patterns. Shanashir did not provide only a decorative and aesthetic element, but also it was designed to perform many environmental functions like adjustment of lighting, humidity and air flow control, reducing the heat, and playing an essential role in securing privacy. Unfortunately, today this functional element of architecture ignores in the modern building and if it be applied don't abide by these aspects.
The aim of this study was to recognition and rehabilitation of this valuable element of architecture, and the consolidation of its position and value in indigenous architecture of Persian Gulf region, and answers to these questions: What are the principles, features, patterns and performance of Shanashirs in Bushehr? What kinds of Shanashirs are available in Bushehr and what is their difference? In order to answer the research questions, author was conducted to investigate this element of architecture with using the descriptive-analysis methods. So this paper contains the parts are as follows: the theory part that introduces and defines the fundamental of Shanashir, and the field part that reviewing the Typology of Shanashir in historical texture of Bushehr. So the theoretical part of paper, accomplished by using the library resources and the field studies is done by using authentic maps, direct observation of these buildings and interview with experts, old photographer and Homeowners. These historical buildings related to Qajar era. The comparison between these houses shows the difference of Shenashir and their frequency in Bushehr. Among all historical buildings of Bushehr, all of the buildings that have Shanashir and their plans and map are existed, has selected to review so The collection of 17 historic building that have been registered with the Cultural Heritage, Crafts & Tourism Organization and 5 Unregistered building have been reviewed in this article.
In the classification of Shanashir, various factors such as location, different types of form and shape, different structures, varied decorations and also the function which are expected from the Shanshir can be considered in their diversity of them. In the historic building of Bushehr, the exterior Shanashir is usually facing the sea and for the use of vision and a cool sea breeze, but in the internal types, in the four fronts of the building, they have been seen to Creating connections between spaces. In a form typology according to the differences that seen in Shanashir, these elements were examined from three perspectives: plan, facade and perspective. The geometry of Shanashir can be divided into 5 groups of linear, L-shaped, U-shaped, triangular and quadrilateral.
External Shanashir in Bushehr are usually linear and l-shaped, but the inner Shanashir have a variety of 5 categories. There are three types of fully-worn, semi-open and completely open. Shanashirs are either protruding or flat in the facade of Shanashirs in Bushehr. The appearance of them is different and according to this difference, there are different structures. The diversity of construction methods of Shanashirs is one of characteristics which have led to diversity and beauty of faced in historical fabric. Windows shade or animated shutter are also used in some of Shanashir. The contrast of brown or blue Shanshir on the white facede of building, make it very conspicuous.
According to the studies that had conducted on the Shanshir of buildings in this research, the authors found the points and characteristics of the Shanshir's element in Bushehr:
Shanshir is essentially an element imported into the Bushehr architecture, but has been changed and identified in accordance with the culture and climate of the country. This architectural element is a functional space that has different functions such as the following:
Climatic reasons such as preventing solar radiation, passive cooling, thermal filter; Aesthetic reasons: Creating variations in the facade, vitality, fluidity and dynamism, readability; cultural reasons: creating the privacy and nuisance vision control; functional reasons: Creating a connection between inside and outside space, flexibility, creating a terrace, vision and landscape.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2019/09/12 | Accepted: 2020/10/18 | Published: 2021/05/22

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