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Deimary N, Goli Bagh Mahyari N, Tooranpoor M. Investigating architectural patterns of Kashan traditional houses in the design of Aghabozorg mosque-school. JRIA 2021; 9 (3) :1-18
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1137-en.html
Department of Civil and Architecture, Malayer University
Abstract:   (5665 Views)
With the advent of Islam and its emphasis on education, mosques became the main bases of education. With the spread of Islam in different lands and the development of science among Muslims, there was a need for a foundation to hold educational sessions. Emphasis on the importance of science and education by Islam, became the main motivation for Muslims to educate in various fields throughout history. In the beginning of Islam, mosques were the only place for Muslims to gather and start lessons. In the Seljuk era, the establishment of Independent schools like Nezamieh, played a significant role in the development of educational centers and so Iranian became the first nation, amongst all Islamic contries, who built schools. Subsequently, during the Timurid era the schools functioned independently and were separated from the mosques. One of the most important and influential schools of this time is the Ghiasieh in Khargerd. In the following periods, Safavid and Qajar era, rebuilding of educational institutions and religious buildings started with the construction of “mosque-school” buildings which were a mixture of mosque and school functions in one building. One of the first and most important “mosque-schools” of Safavid era is Chaharbagh school which is located in the city of Isfahan. Henceforth in Qahar era, most of the Qajar schools were built in “mosque-school” format. On the other hand, the architecture of the Qajar-era contains too many important innovations which were influenced by deep changes of pre-modern era in Europe. Among these pioneers of architectural change in Qajar era, it is possible to mention the Agha Bozorg “mosque-school” in Kashan. The construction of the “mosque-school” of Agha Bozorg began during the reign of Mohammad Shah in Qajar era (1833-1856) on the remnants of the 1192 earthquake in Kashan. This school was built to become a place for prayer and lectures of Haj Molla Mehdi Naraghi, known as Agha Bozorg. This building is somewhat innovative, and, from some others perspective, deconstructive. The reason for these innovations can be found in revising the concepts and patterns of domestical architecture in Kashan and re-applying them to this “mosque-school” which makes this building look like a mansion, not a mosque. A mansion for the students to live in.On the other hand, Kashan city includes some of the best examples of residential houses in Iran, which are designed to live in the harsh climate of desert using similar patterns that has formed through the centuries. In this research, ten Qajar mansions were chosen, which were built in a period of 10 years, before and after Aghabozorg “Moque-school”. This Period of time indicates the time
frame in which a traditional mansion was built, because in some examples, due to traditional building methos, it takes 20 years to build a mansion in Qajar era. By comparing Agha Bozorg “mosque-school” parts, elements and patterns with similar elements in residential buildings of the same period, in Kashan, it seems that Agha Bozorg is a domestic building that is covered by a mosque`s face, and the architect of this building has considered the architectural design of the building with elements of Iran traditional mansions such as: Basement yard which is a yard in -1 level and beneath the main yard to reach the underground water and cool temperature of soil. This basement yard is a common element in Kashan masions. The other element is called Mahtabi, which means moonlight place, and is a platform above the main yard and is used to benefit the cool nights of desert. The other element is Badgir or wind catcher which is very rare in mosques and school and a popular element in Kashan houses. It`s Hard to find a mansion without Badgir in Kashan. In designing the façade of Aghabozor “mosque-school”, the architect, borrows the classic pattern of Kashan mansions with a big room in the middle which is called Panj-dari and two smaller rooms which are called Sedari. These names mention the rooms with 5 and 3 windows. Even the way to enter each room is taken from mansions, entering from the side of the room not from the front- unlike most of traditional schools. As a result, this school looks like a traditional mansion with a dome and a pair of minarets and, it seems that the architect, unlike all his predecessors, Ignores many classic patterns of a mosque, even the holy direction of Kiblah, and chooses the acclimate orientation. This climatic design is the only way for people in Kashan to survive the harsh weather, hot sun and sandstorms of the desert and architecture of all houses in Kashan is based on similar elements and patterns which were transformed into new functions in a creative way. So this building has essentially turned into a shell of a traditional mansion over “mosque-school” functions. A “mosque-school”,that benefits the climatic design of a house to make it a better climatic place for the students to live in
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2019/07/14 | Accepted: 2021/03/26 | Published: 2021/09/22

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