Volume 6, Issue 3 (autumn- 2018 2018)                   JRIA 2018, 6(3): 49-68 | Back to browse issues page

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Sadeghi A R, Khakzand M, Bagherzadeh O. Effective Factors of Place Making in the Islamic Iranian City, Case Study: Nasir al-Mulk Mosque and Shiraz Atigh Jame' Mosque. JRIA 2018; 6 (3) :49-68
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1042-en.html
Assistant Professor of Urban Design, Department of Urban Planning & Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University
Abstract:   (4646 Views)
Today's Islamic Iranian city must be an appropriate place to meet the diverse needs of citizens where relations between citizens together, and with the natural and artificial environment around them is set based on the values and Monotheism teachings of the religion of Islam. In fact, it seems that the ultimate goal of the Islamic Iranian city as a habitat is to pave the way of man towards the divine grace. In the ancient Islamic Iranian city, public spaces have always been a place for the crystallizing the unity of the Islamic Ummah, holding communal religious practices, trading, establishing social interactions, and communicating with the natural environment. Defined public spaces, lively, flexible, thriving, environmentally friendly and with a special meaning, this study refers to them as place, and their creation defines the Islamic Ummah, not merely the accumulation of human beings. The places that need for them in today's Islamic Iranian cities are felt more than ever. Certainly an excellent example of such spaces in the past Islamic Iranian cities has been the space and the courtyard of historical mosques. In fact, the mosques were on the one hand a venue for worship, and on the other hand, the place that organized the social life of the neighborhoods inhabitants and resolved the affairs of the people. Mosques have always played a role in various fields such as strengthening social cohesion, promoting public participation, increasing social security, building functional diversity and enhancing the sense of belonging. Leading the city's path into the courtyard of mosques turned these spaces into urban public spaces. The presence of such spaces in the fabric of cities and urban neighborhoods brings a vitality and social life to the Islamic cities. Therefore, this research seeks to identify the effective factors to make and develop places in the Islamic Iranian cities through the analysis of the physical, semantic and functional characteristics of mosques as the most excellent example of public place in the Islamic Iranian cities. In this regard, two historical mosques in the city of Shiraz (Atiq and Nasir al-Mulk Mosques), which have unique semantic physical characteristics, have been selected as a case study. Atiq Jame' Mosque, as the oldest mosque in Shiraz, has always played a central and pivotal role in the religious, historical, cultural, social and political structure of Shiraz city and with many general and historical areas of Shiraz, such as the bazaar, historical neighborhoods, Shah Cheragh, Now Mosque (the New Mosque), and the city entrance gate have a spatial-physical continuity. The sixth entrance of the mosque, located on the different sides, is a testimony to the unique prosperity and performance of the mosque in the past as a throbbing heart in the old Shiraz fabric, a communication space and a place for gathering and establishing social relations between citizens. On the other hand, many studies refer to the present position of the Nasir al-Mulk historical mosque as a space for communication and social interaction of citizens, a place with unique physical, social, and perceptual characteristics to induce a sense of belonging to citizens and with influential physical attributes to strengthen the sense of spirituality and the imposition of semantic load to the citizens. These signs point to the contemporary role of the courtyard of the mosque as an urban space. Also, the present study uses a descriptive-analytic research method in the field of theoretical framework analysis; and the causal-comparative research method and content analysis and review methods of video documentation and interviews with experts and the Analytic network process (ANP) for ranking the rules and analyzing case examples. Formation of network structure, formation of comparative matrices and compatibility control, binary comparison of the main criteria, binary comparison of internal dependencies of the main criteria, binary comparison of the sub-criteria of each main criteria, the binary comparison of the sub-criteria of internal dependencies, the calculation of the final weight of the sub-criteria, the binary comparison of the preferred options and the choice of the optimal option are the main steps of the network analysis process. The statistical population of this research in interviewing and completing the process of hierarchical analysis was architecture and urban planners of the universities of Iran that among them, based on the snowball sampling method, 25 people with urban and architectural specialties were selected as the sample group of the statistical population. The results of this research show that form component (with indicators: attractive elements of attention, orientation and perception capability through different senses), activity component (with indicators: behavior, body language, and culture sociality), meaning and imagination component (with indicators: memorable, spirituality, Meanings and values and emotion), and ecosystem component (with indicators: tree and plant, water, natural light, and coherence with the climate), affect the formation of the place in the Islamic Iranian city. Also, in this research, along with analysis of case studies, strategies and policies have been presented to make place in the Islamic Iranian city, based on the developed components and key criteria.    
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2019/02/4 | Accepted: 2019/02/4 | Published: 2019/02/4

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