Volume 5, Issue 2 (summer96 2017)                   2017, 5(2): 75-90 | Back to browse issues page

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Saadat D, Etesam I, Mokhtabad Amrai S M, Mahdavinejad M. Explain Concept of Transparency in Terms of Modern, Postmodern and Evaluating that in Islamic Iranian Architecture. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2017; 5 (2) :75-90
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-766-en.html
Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
Abstract:   (2525 Views)
In the history of architecture, since the architects sought to enter the light inside and as a result, its relationship with external conditions, the concept of transparency has been studied. Therefore, elements such as glass have been used to create transparency and entering the light. But because of lack of technical knowledge to achieve that goal, the less successes have been achieved. By the beginning of Modern architecture in the world, some new words come into the literature of architecture such as the theory of transparency in architecture. Actually transparency is an expression of the thoughts and ideals of Modern architecture in the shape of own self.
 On the other hand, deployment of transparency in the form of glassy architecture, created the base of criticism for its widespread use by critics of modernism. Colin Rowe and Robert Slutsky in the article “The Literal and the phenomenal transparency” presented an integral definition of transparency that could help Postmodern view about transparency. At the first, they classify the Literal transparency as the perceptual or spectacular one, and phenomenal transparency as the conceptual or readable one. Literal transparency actually refers to light permeability of materials and Interference indoor and outdoor spaces. A concept that could be considered as influenced by cubist painting techniques and aesthetics of Modern architecture.
The other statement of transparency, which is often used in the architecture of most of the world, is traction and appeal to create a sequence of spaces inside and outside the building. Which we can see the appearance of a perfect sample of it in Iranian architecture. In Iranian Islamic architecture that the valuable and exalted heritage of our ancients was the concepts of light and its different forms of that in wisdom, philosophy and art, not only before Islam but also after that.
The question is that how was transparency in Iranian Islamic architecture and what are conceptual differences between modern and postmodern architecture with Iranian Islamic architectural transparency. Transparency is among most important architectural issues that are rarely addressed. This importance is because of the comparison of some viewpoints about concept of transparency in the eras of Modern, Post-modern architecture and Iranian Islamic architecture to achieving principles of the formation of the concept and its types with aim to precise definition of structural concepts of objective and subjective.
The Article based on analyzing texts and collected data through librarian search and some documentaries. To narrow the scope of work, the evolution of transparency in the modern and post-modern movement. At first express types of transparency in modern architecture, postmodern and Iran›s Islamic architecture then study Comparative Comparison them and finally, explain and evaluate the transparency of Iran›s Islamic architecture.
This article expresses some kinds of transparency and divides it to Three Categories: Literal transparency, Phenomenal transparency and Semantic transparency and then analyses the philosophical and aesthetic based on architecture of modern, postmodern and Iranian Islamic architects. In this paper, we try to describe the features of transparency by considering of this parameter in modern architecture. After all, transparency in Iranian Islamic architecture is based on the concepts explained. With this method, the use of transparency in each of these eras has been explained and then used in a timeline, and finally examined the evolution of this application.
About achievement of this study to previous examples can be cited to this point what›s that Spatial transparency in the evolution of Iranian architecture introduced by Hadi Mirmiran, which means increased space and reduced material is on properties of Literal transparency more and based on the theory of modernism and is similar to Bruno Zevi,s view.
While results of this study, in addition to the above, in Iranian Islamic architecture, phenomenal transparency and semantic transparency are more and existence of major mental clarity (not objective). In the Iranian Islamic architecture and contrary to the last ones, we can give a hint, that the explanation of Iranian architecture with the modern architecture’s language instead of its Islamic and Iranian language is so wrong. Actually we ignore and connive at some parameters by this viewing. In fact, with dealing like visual material these concepts, a lot of deep cultural concepts in Islamic architecture will be ignored.
Full-Text [PDF 6457 kb]   (2008 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2017/09/27 | Accepted: 2017/09/27 | Published: 2017/09/27

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