Volume 2, Number 3 (12-2014)                   2014, 2(3): 45-57 | Back to browse issues page


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Responding the psychological needs of human in educational spaces using the lessons from traditional schools. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2014; 2 (3) :45-57
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-60-en.html

Abstract:   (3521 Views)
Despite rapid quantitative growth in recent years, little attention has been paid to the quality of learning environments in contemporary universities. With the rapid increase in the capacity of universities and establishing new academic units and courses, growth in physical spaces in universities and higher educational institutions has accelerated considerably in recent years. Quantitatively oriented perspective to the issue of education has led the learning to be limited to the classrooms learning environment merely and therefore growth and improvement in universities only be done in a course of study for students. Lack of attention to the psychological needs of human beings and one-sided approach to the issues of education (apart from nurturing) are weaknesses of the current educational program which have affected the contemporary collegiate architecture as well. Developing and shaping of contemporary environment of universities have been suddenly and quickly, that caused poor quality of the current spaces. These factors include: 1. Inappropriate sites outside the cities or vicinities to provide the basic needs which impose additional costs 2. Formation of more than 40 percent of universities without Primary comprehensive plan 3. Purely quantitative perspective to the development of educational spaces 4. Shortage of welfare as a result of unforeseen developments 5. The high level of occupation and appliance at universities the major cities 6. Lack of attention to campuses in many universities Based on the principles of environmental psychology, structure, shape, form, color and specification of the environment effect on behavior, learning, social interaction and communication. Accordingly, respecting the proposed theories about human psychological needs of physical needs to needs of growth and self-actualization, by studying the physical spaces of the traditional Islamic schools of architecture as fulfilling the psychological needs in all aspects, could be reach the principles and models of the design physical spaces in contemporary university education. This article is to scrutinize the physical characteristics of Iranian Islamic architecture and specifically the traditional schools architecture such as Chahar Bagh and Agha Bozorg, which their architectural formation were based on Islamic perspective, to detect principles and components that is confirmed by Islamic monotheistic viewpoints and the theories of environmental psychology as well. This paper benefited from logical conclusion by interpreting and analyzing the structure of individual spaces, their spatial hierarchy and ultimately analyzing the whole of architecture of these schools, to detect the ideas and strategies employed to meet the psychological needs of human, to be able to extract contemporary design strategies for the spaces of university campuses such as training classes, public places, privacy and relationship with nature. All these principles could be exploited to contribute towards improving the overall sense of place and achieve more concurrence in the education, training and nurturing of students. In traditional educational system unlike the current system, there was no separate between in education and other aspects of student life and what the student had been learning was following the same lifestyle. Framework of traditional schools had been providing space for this attitude. All of these schools, such as Chahar Bagh of Esfahan, Ghiyathiyeh Khar Gerd Khaf, Motahari School (Sepahsalar) and etc., had been included of rooms for all students. Student’s living spaces were located at all four sides of the courtyard. Identifying and analyzing the spaces composition, as well as tiny spaces of Islamic traditional schools could find the principles of wisdom. The results indicate that: 1. Composition and harmony between the life spaces, worship and education spaces had been for development and improvement in all aspects of life. 2. Being together living, educational and converge spaces, had been providing the need to housing and shelter and had been creating a peaceful and secure environment. This could not be seen in the current universities. 3. Existence of hierarchy of spatial 1) central courtyard 2) semiprivate porch and 3) private rooms, have created feature interactions at different levels and degrees. The central courtyard has been the common factor of linking. The common factor and spatial hierarchy in the current residents of universities are not seen as a particular form. 4. Form and layout of classroom rings while creating a strong relationship between teacher and students have been created the participation. While in existing classrooms is one-sided relationship. 5. Coordinating components of traditional schools have created sense of balance, continuities, purpose, legible and transparency. While in the majority of contemporary spaces of universities, distribution of forms and colors and etc. has created Illegible or even a stressful environment. 6. Inverted form of traditional schools operates in order to increase concentration of mind and separation of interests outside of school. 7. The strong geometric plan of central courtyard and green spaces, have been acting as the driver's mind to thinking. While in the contemporary college campus, green space, is filling the empty areas. 8. By giving rooms to students in the educational environment created a sense of competence, self-esteem, consequently the environment and responsibility for their learning environment. 9. Semiprivate porch space in traditional schools have played role of debate and free discussion space, which have caused the development and promotion of students ultimately. It is while in the current hostels there are no such spaces.
Full-Text [PDF 570 kb]   (1136 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2015/04/8 | Accepted: 2015/04/8 | Published: 2015/04/8

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