Volume 4, Number 1 (6-2016)                   2016, 4(1): 16-28 | Back to browse issues page


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Zakeri S M H, Ghahramani A, Shahnazi D, Bazyar hamze khanie E. Module and Iranian Golden Rectangle Theory in Historical Houses of Qajar Era in Shiraz City. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2016; 4 (1) :16-28
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-426-en.html

Abstract:   (1686 Views)

The golden ratio has been claimed to have held a special fascination for at least 2,400 years. Some of the greatest mathematical minds of all ages, from Pythagoras and Euclidian ancient Greece, through the medieval Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa and the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler, to present-day scientific figures such as Oxford physicist Roger Penrose, have spent endless hours over this simple ratio and its properties. But the fascination with the Golden Ratio is not confined just to mathematicians. Biologists, artists, musicians, historians, architects, psychologists, and even mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its ubiquity and appeal. In fact, it is probably fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics. The Parthenon›s facade as well as elements of its facade and elsewhere are said by some to be circumscribed by golden rectangles. A 2004 geometrical analysis of earlier research into the Great Mosque of Kirvan reveals a consistent application of the golden ratio throughout the design, according to Mazouz. They found ratios close to the golden ratio in the overall proportion of the plan and in the dimensioning of the prayer space, the court, and the minaret.

Golden Ratio and Geometry,plays an important role inIranian traditionalarchitecture (I.T.A) and it is very serious in bases of construction.In a recent book, author Jason Elliot speculated that the golden ratio was used by the designers of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square and the adjacent Lotfollah mosque.In Traditional proportion knowledge, «Beauty» is not an individual style and verve, and it has geometric rules and methods.Hence, proportional theories created.»Iranian golden Rectangle» and «Gaz and Module» are two main important design ratiotheories in I.T.A.

Many experts expected two above ratios have been used in buildings design by traditional Iranian architects. Testing these two theories in several historic houses of Qajar era in Shiraz city is the aim of present study.

Gaz and module means the unitratios which areused in length measurement. Babylonia and Assyria were invented these measurement units (1Babylonia Gaz=0.53m), which used by Iranian later butby doublingtheamount of it (1 Iranian Gaz=1.06m).

Measurements repeated for width and lengths for all three categories, as repeated. Length and width of spaces calculated in Gaz unit and the compared to Gaz (and its quarter fractional too). Considering the test results data leading to refuse or accept the theory,the difference data with the smallest difference possible is calculated.

Iranian golden Rectangle means the length to width ratio of a rectangle surrounded by a Regular Hexagon, which is not more than three possible ratios (1.73,1.15, and 2.31)depended on the type of architecture space.to perform the study, spaces are divided by three main categories as below:

1- Ccentralcourtyard

2- Five-door rooms

3- Three-door rooms

Analyzing the geometries and spaces results the ratios as below:

1- The Aspect ratio of Central Courtyardis 1.73.

2-The Aspect ratio of Five-door rooms is Apex. 1.73

3- The Aspect ratio of Three-door rooms is 1.15.

Sample selection is done randomly with the proviso that the selection sample is in the Qajar era, and indicator such a shaving historical valueand Also include disa selection from different neighborhoods of old shiraz.

The exact dimensions were recorded and statistical data prepared and analyzed using Spss software. The normality of data was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Accordingly, data was converted to a normal distribution by using a Box-Cox and subsequently t-test was used to test hypotheses. The ratio of coefficient of variation was also used to compare the “Gaz and Module” theory and the “Iranian golden Rectangle” theory. However, architects have been tried to follow the “Gaz and Module” theory for designing important houses spaces, but The results of the study shows architecture of Shiraz historical houses, gotvery closed to»Gaz and Module» theory and not exactly, especially in Qajar period. However, «Gaz and module» theory is not so much accurate, but it can be accepted to study the Qajar era architecture by it.

Considering the actual situation and the plan of the Shiraz historical houses, the authors concluded that deviation from the “Gaz and Module” theory can be explained according to the type of separation and division of lands in other words architects could not get the exact ratios why the land division plans were oblique in many cases. This research and analyze is also done by poor ahmadi and Partners for traditional Yazd houses. They also concluded «Iranian golden Rectangle» is rejected in Yazd houses. Therefore,its advised to expand the analyzes of «Iranian golden Rectangle» theory for other Iranian traditional cities.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2016/06/24 | Accepted: 2016/06/24 | Published: 2016/06/24

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