Volume 3, Number 4 (3-2016)                   2016, 3(4): 84-97 | Back to browse issues page


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Abouei R, Owlia M R, Yadegari Z, Efazat S. Analytical Comparing between Western Conservation Viewpoints with Islamic Ideology in Expressing Metaphysical Aspects of Architectural Heritage. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2016; 3 (4) :84-97
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-355-en.html

Abstract:   (1734 Views)

In creating and continuation of the life of architectural heritage, there have always been numerous aspects influencing; recognizing such aspects is a crucial point in conserving the works of every land. Today, hastened integration of historical countries with modern conserving current has led to a shift in definition and understanding metaphysical aspects of the works within such countries. Since a major part of methods, styles, instructions, definitions and even vocabulary of conserving heritage come along with scientific and technical aspects, they are considered neutral; they are allowed to enter the conserving system of Eastern and traditional countries, and gradually, the heart of the metaphysical concepts and contents of conserving in such countries has replaced the conserving tradition. Indeed, understanding and referring to metaphysics in Western view illustrates such issue and attempt in its revival and recovery beyond conserving the heritage physically, that is worthy. However, as it is stated in the basics of contemporary heritage conserving, it is required to refer to thought and theoric basics of each country to safeguard native values.

Considering this point is essential from two perspectives: first, the effect that this shift leaves in understanding metaphysical aspects in today’s Iranian conserving, and second, the necessity of transmitting metaphysical aspects hidden in the works to coming generations.

Consequently, the present study is seeking an answer to the question whether the metaphysical aspects can be used in western conservation viewpoint to express metaphysical aspects of Iranian architectural works. Thus, taking a look over metaphysic in Western view, we compare it with Islamic-Iranian view.

To investigate the metaphysical issues in Western theories of conserving, this survey has referred to international texts, charters and the ideas of thought leaders in the field of architectural conserving, and according to how each era considers metaphysical points, it divides such texts into three sections and then, studies them. Then, from among the texts of each section, the key terms introducing metaphysical aspects, explanations, definitions and the method of defining such aspects are extracted. It worths to point that only those Western intellectual currents which directly affect conserving are named. Consequently, instead of selecting a particular approach in western thought and generalizing it to or comparing it with conserving current, this study tries to extract the Western philosophical and intellectual approaches from the very heart of available currents of conserving.

In architectural conservation in Iran there is a perspective called Iranian-Islamic whose meaning is the influence of Islamic belief and thought upon tradition of conserving architectural works during Islamic era of Iran.

This paper is going to find a “field-raised” approach to investigate the available examples and methods of conservation which form a part of conservation tradition in Iran. As a result, through moving from example to the concept, the attempt is to extract the religious concepts affecting the deeds. The examples of considering spiritual and metaphysical issues are derived from oral interviews, field and library works. Rooting such concepts takes place through arrangement of extracted parameters and codes. Referring to verses of Holy Quran related to the subject matter and also utilizing Tafsir al-Mizan, the personal interpretation of religious issues is prevented as much as possible. Finally, through analytical-comparative method, the similarities and the differences between two perspectives in explaining metaphysical aspects are discussed.

The analytical comparison indicates that the mentioned metaphysical aspects in Western view does not include all aspects available in Iranian Architecture based on Islamic Iranian view. The essence of these perspectives differs in a couple of views which originates in the difference between their ideology and basics.

Since the metaphysical concepts deal with beyond-materialistic issues, often they have no precision in expressing physical and quantitative aspects. Following this obscurity, the popular usage of the concepts proposed in different historical periods of Western conservation, and those have in common with concepts available in Islamic view solely in vocable, for the first step lead to semantic confusion of such concepts and then their incorrect combination with metaphysical concepts available in architectural works and today’s conservation in Iran.

Also, since the metaphysical aspects of conservation and the architecture, in Islamic viewpoint, are integrated with monotheistic belief and resurrection of human, it does not propose metaphysics from humanistic view point, and considers a vaster range in expression of such aspects. Therefore, it is required to assert that by deletion of Islamic perspective from Persian conservation, the spiritual meanings, concepts and the contents of such heritage is gradually “forgiven” and “feigned”. On the other hand, since such aspects are tied with individual’s internal belief and roots in his resurrection thought, they affect all practical and theoretical pillars of conservation including factor, subject matter and the method of conservation; as a result, to continue and revive such aspects in conservation, through Islamic reflection, training individuals along with education requires attention; as the precession of such issue is capable for review through tutor-pupil methods, professional customs and fotowatnamehs in traditional industries and professions. Thus, action itself as a content is employed to carry sublime religious concepts and constructs a part of conservation and enduring nature of metaphysical aspects in the process of conserving the body. Also, a fortiori, in this view, human is not neutral and his role is to carry the sublime meanings of a tradition. It woths to know that, in Islamic attitude, there is a close relationship between three pillars of conservation that are conservation subject, conservation method and conservation factor which is a human who moves along with divine will, and these three are united under monotheistic view.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2016/04/7 | Accepted: 2016/04/7 | Published: 2016/04/7

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