Volume 6, Issue 4 (winter2019 2019)                   2019, 6(4): 63-84 | Back to browse issues page

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Momtahen M, Narighomi M. A Revision of Geometric Training of Architects from Islamic View. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2019; 6 (4) :63-84
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1109-en.html
Abstract:   (230 Views)
This article is about value-based foundations of internalizing of geometry in young students of architecture. Training of geometry has long been an important part of architectural education that can be pursued back up to ancient Egypt and Babylon. But in modernity it has passed a radical change from a sacred one to a value-free job. But more precise look will show that this value-free claim has not been of real truth. Here via interpretative-historical analyze it has been shown that four basic values are historically attached to the geometric facts of architecture that all of them have affected architectural education. The four value-giving areas of human life are the transcendental, the individual, the social and the materialistic ones. Putting emphasize on every of the four as canon of value makes a different type of architectural training system of geometry. In this study five types of geometrical approaches towards architecture upon value structures are introduced: 1. the absolute geometry: this approach refers to mathematical view of geometry and could be traced back to Platonic academy. But in its relationship to architecture the absolute geometry is linked to Aristotle’s conception of geometry and its Islamic followers such as Avicenna and Farabi where he considered form as a production of the mind upon given information of the object. He sees form of no value-based content or meaning.  This aspect of form could be realized in contemporary paradigm of parametric design while it has its counterparts in 19th century model of education of architects i.e. the tradition of polytechnics; 2. Geometry as a mirror of the transcendent: it has been the main stream of geometrical thought in Islamic world as well as some other traditional civilizations. But in the contemporary time it was modern movement that put such a heavy value on form a distinct platonic view of le Corbusier. It has its base in enlightment thinking of Ledoux and Bulee. In the field of education this was crystallized in Bauhaus style where Platonic volumes had their transcendental place as highest reference of creation; 3. Geometry as manifestation of the subject: this trend can be linked to Romantic thought. In Romanticism the hidden part of Kantian self was perceived to be emerged in artistic work of hand. So the hand drawings and sketch found a special attention from artistic architects. This view has been extended into current educational content of architecture. But it has its counterparts in primitive architectural analysis. The homology of body, home and the universe that Eliade among others presented is a semi-subjective theory of geometry for vernacular architecture. Presentation of self via hand sketch has a symbolic use in architectural education today; 4. Geometry as the manifestation of nature of the materiality: it is another product of Aristotle’s geometric thought that was manifested in his conception of the term of “form” but in contemporary architecture formalist movement of deconstruction and other critical theories is based on self-referring formal composition of either absolute formal components or synthetic collage. Architectural education of some Avant-grade schools such as AA school of London follows this current of geometric bias; 5. Geometry as united nature of the world: ancient view of Pythagoras about numerical order of the world has been an examplary vision for some traditions of architecture. Molla Sadra’s theory of existence presents a different unity concept between human and nature. In currnt times some other theories claim this role of geometric order that unites world of subject with nature. Christopher Alexander’s view in “Nature of Order” proposes such a vision to geometric value of artifacts that can make them like living beings. In terms of architectural education apart from vernacular tools of cultural transmission could be traced in works of Alexander’s followers.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2019/06/2 | Accepted: 2019/06/2 | Published: 2019/06/2

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