Volume 6, Issue 4 (winter2019 2019)                   2019, 6(4): 37-62 | Back to browse issues page

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Mousavi Haji S R, Joodkai Azizi A, Abdolahi S. Research in The "Palace of The South" And "Middle Palace" In The Ceremonial Architecture Series of Lashkaribazar; Based On Historical Commentary, Literary Sources and Architectural Findings. . Iran University of Science & Technology. 2019; 6 (4) :37-62
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-1108-en.html
Professor of Faculty Arts and Architecture University of Mazandaran
Abstract:   (604 Views)
Our limited knowledge of Iranian ceremonial architecture in the early Islamic centuries to the beginning of the later centuries has been accompanied by fundamental questions in the design of palaces, their spatial elements, and the way in that kings reside in them. Not remaining abundance and impressive works of this relatively large time period, Caused These questions never answers well. But If the architecture works in the Lashkari Bazaar collection, study and introduce properly can solve part of this concern, especially from the fourth to the sixth century AH which is exactly equal to the period of the domination of the Ghaznavid monarchs.
Two of the major works of the collection, the South Palace and the North Palace, have attracted the attention of researchers for their better preservation than other works of the collection. Despite the numerous studies in this regard, the previous questions have not been answered firmly. Therefore, this study attempted to deal this issue; By adopting the position and architectural structure of the two traces with the help of historical and literary sources, which have not been addressed or used extensively in previous studies. Therefore, the use of a comparative approach in the field of comparative literature (architecture and literature) makes this research different from previous studies. In doing so and specifically, analyzing the findings has also benefited from a historical approach. The latest research shows that the Southern Palace, as its explorer, Scholomberge, also said earlier, was built at the time of Amir Mahmud, Ghaznavi and contrary to Alan›s view literary documents show that, , his large traces of paintings appeared on the northern front at the same time. The Beygman castle structure reflects the thoughts of the official architecture of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs in Iraq and the Shams. But the spatial composition of structures, the type and manner of implementation of the elements of architecture, the manner of performance and the theme of the images has been taken from the Iranian traditions that existed till then and persistence.
The special position of this palace and other palaces of the complex depending on the natural course of the Hirmand River. In that way, the dominant idea in choosing the position and longitudinal axis of the palaces is this natural landscape.
This issue was continually noticed by the poets of the same period, who also often admired the Ghaznavi court. The results of this study showed   Multiple sections that sometimes have a relatively independent structure of the palace›s public spaces   was the location of the elders of the country and the army Along some of the elements of space. These parts are sometimes recorded in the literary and historical sources with the name Saracheh or Tarom. The decorated porch of the North Face, contrary to the views of Etinghusen and Grabar, and with the approval of Ashlomberge and Allen, has been the location of the seat and Royal headquarters of Amir Ghaznavi.
This porch that is said «high arch» to the river in the literary sources, which is considered to be the status of the throne of the Sultan. This porch is adapted to a space that has been brought into the body of the palaces of that period by the name of “Audience Porch « by Baygahi, a journalist of a number of Ghaznavid emperors (Sultan Mahmud and Amir Massoud).
The palace was continuously used by Ghaznavid emperors since the middle of the sixth century, when the political office of the Ghaznavid government was shut down by Aladdin Jahansuiz / Ghouri. Subsequently, with extensions such as a bath in the northeast of the palace, the reconstruction of parts of the stage damaged by the fire of Amir Ghori›s war with Bahramshah Ghaznavi Also, the narrowing of the width of some of the ports was useful for the rulers of Ghoria.
In the seventh century AH and with the devastating attacks of the Mongols, it was once again fired and abandoned like many Iranian architectural traces forever. The middle palace, which is much smaller than the Southern Palace, is also centered on the north-south river flow. There is no need to argue that the use of the Hirmand River landscape was also the reason for choosing its position near the edge of the 10 meter abyss. The body of this palace is generally made up of two sateges, such as parts of the South Palace. There can be no doubt that the lower satege, with the exception of the eastern axis, was available to the crew and some government officials. The porch of this satege that opens to the garden is where Amir Massouds audience hall. The high stage, which offers a few patterns of  nine extraterrestrial dome, has been the residential and private section of Amir Ghaznavi;
This section is adapted as «Farvar» in the Persian ceremonial architecture that has been repeatedly published in literary sources. There is a significant diversity in the perspective of the four porches of this stage.
The river in the west, Locan plain and the river in the north, the garden and meadow on the east side and again, the Locan Plain and the River Flow in the south are the views of this palace.
In this respect, the middle palace, which must be a belvedere as Allen said , is also considered to be significant in Iranian landscape architecture, and with some poetic descriptions of some literary sources it is adapted to the relatively pervasive design of some of the slopes of this period. In general, the body of this palace is part of the extensions that were added after the development of eastern part of garden. It means, the garden area, which was previously developed to the river and the position that belvedere later built and When the middle palace was built, the old palace was replaced by the removal of the western gate of the old four-wall.
These events took place before the Ghaznavid period, and Alan considered it during the Samanids (half of the 4th century AD). But, of course, the garden and the surrounding fence should be considered the oldest part of this landscape structure. In any case according to Beyhaqi›s words It was used, during the Ghaznavids period and specifically during the time of Amir Massoud I. Noting this point that the secondary use that seems to have been given from the time of the Samanids to its four-sided garden was preserved and used as a campus or hunting ground; Predators and grazers of the Lacanian plain surrounded by a large number of manpower and probably driven through the gates of the east, south, and north. Amir Ghaznavi was obviously in an enclosed area of more than 10.5 hectares in its developmental structure and in a special position that could have been the eastern axis of the two stages.
There is a small building in the north of this site, which sometimes called Kushk-i-Rudkhaneh. Some of the architectural elements of this building are reasons for belonging it to pre-Ghaznavic period and its overall structure same to the middle palace has two mezzanines. This building has been formed in two periods. At the first time two rooms were built in the northern and eastern sides of a platform which exactly facing to the river. The other parts are belonging to the second period of palace architecture. This relic is considered as residential and private palace. There is no doubt it has been used in Ghaznavic Period same to the middle palace.
The results of research showing that contrary to what is associated with simplicity, avoidance of futility and slang of the Islamic first centuries architecture (Khorasani style), but ceremonial architecture has taken an another route.The ceremonial architecture was accompanied by impressive decorations and also found a great place. The decoration of common times platform in the south palace and the mentioned relics in two mezzanine clearly challenge the previous view. Despite the lack of evidence, ceremonial architecture of the first Islamic centuries could have been a continuation of whatever during the pre-Islamic era was widespread.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2019/06/2 | Accepted: 2019/06/2 | Published: 2019/06/2

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