Volume 5, Issue 1 (spring96 2017)                   JRIA 2017, 5(1): 105-123 | Back to browse issues page

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Abstract:   (5904 Views)
Spiritual Islamic architecture is mostly based on mosques, which is a manifestation of recreation,
repetition, harmony, order, and peace of nature created by God as Muslims’ everlasting home for
prayer. Also, architecture meets the needs of a society. Therefore, a mosque is capable of meeting
spiritual and metaphysic needs. By accepting Islam and by their own will, Iranian accepted the
mosques as a place for prayer and they gradually move towards building mosques that fitted to
their architectural traditions. By emerging the Safavid and establishing Isfahan school, the mosque
got more importance and it became as a symbol of Shi’a ideals and a place for introducing them.
Moreover, the mosques in Shiraz are important because from the beginning of Islam to the end of
Qajar period, there was no mosque with tomb and the mosques had a chamber model. Since the
culmination of evolution of spiritual architecture art is seen in the Imam Mosque in Isfahan, and
the architecture of Vakil Mosques in Shiraz has chamber model and different from its previous
models, the question is, Vakil Mosque of Shiraz and Isfahan Imam architecture as an indicator for
two consecutive terms of what features are common and What elements of the architecture of the
mosque of Imam Mosque in Isfahan›s lawyer can be affected? As such, the research aims to study,
compare, and analyze the elements and characteristics of two Islamic art and architecture masterpieces
of Iran, i.e. Imam Mosque in Isfahan and Vakil Mosque in Shiraz, and shows the similarities and
differences of views and identities of designing these mosques. To do this, descriptive – analytical
and comparative methods, with survey and studying library sources and observation, and also using
the map of gathered data were used. The data have been studied and analyzed and they were gathered
in tables. The findings show that, with respect to function and space, the architecture of the Zand
period has some similarities to the Safavid, however, in some details like organizing spaces and their
relationships has its own characteristics. The entrance hierarchy; forecourt, entrance porch, gate,
vestibule, corridor, and Miyan Sara and the space hierarchy; connection, transfer, and joints were similar. Also, the importance of open space and circulation of the mosque towards its front square
are well seen in both mosques, and the relationship of the mosques with city and bazaar follow
one approach. Additionally, there were some differences in space structure, Miyansar, and visual
relationship with audience and the main difference in these two mosques is the space quality. In fact,
movement in space and understanding it moment by moment is seen more in Imam Mosque than in
Vakil Mosque, which has space integrity. Also, the porches have made a stronger relationship with
other elements of the mosque. Safavid architecture facilitates the relationship of inside and outside
of the building by giving dynamic characteristics to the space. But, since the Zand period came after
this period, Vakil mosque has a two-porch shape in which the relationship only happens between
two porches and space dynamism decreases. Moreover, it should be mentioned that not having
tomb or minaret is related to the dominated views of that period and it is not considered as a defect,
and the identity of mosque is not ruined by lack of one element. So follow the Safavid era Zand
era architecture, but look at the past can be seen in it. Zand era architecture in terms of functional
and spatial similarities to the Safavid period, but in the details, such as the organization of space
and its relevance, has its own characteristics. Myansra also differences in the visual connection
with the audience, as well as lack of domes and minarets of the mosque are seeing a lawyer. But
Zand architecture and urbanization followed the Safavid in general principles, however, in the Zand
period we see more context-based urbanization and architecture. Location mosque in the main and
secondary routes of communication, the users will have more choice. Due to this feature through a
positive sense of ease of access takes place in the mind. As such, the Zand followed the Safavid but
a look to past is also seen on that period. Although the Imam mosque is the most complete mosque
of Iran, it used other Iranian models as well.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2017/06/19 | Accepted: 2017/06/19 | Published: 2017/06/19

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