Volume 7, Issue 1 (spring 2019 2019)                   JRIA 2019, 7(1): 129-156 | Back to browse issues page

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Abstract:   (3260 Views)
Isfahan Residential Architecture has provided valuable samples of art and architecture throughout history. House is one of the most important forms of social organizing of space that have been influenced by many factors, such as many man-made collections, in creating them. Historical settlements of Isfahan have extensive identities in the Physical Organisation. In fact, the historic houses of Isfahan are a unique collection of domestic Architecture, that in its Physical Organisation, in spite of its wide-ranging similarities, rare and sometimes unique features are also found. Often, these features of the Physical organization in general and emphasis on similarity have been formulated in the form of categories as typology with historical and formal approaches. Meanwhile, today, many historical houses in the city of Isfahan, regardless of the identification of the aspects of original diversity in the body, their function and content are forgotten and destroyed, and some human activities have been caused to considerable destruction in the aspects of diversity of historical settlements of Isfahan city. While diversity creation in the physical housing system has been an important factor in consolidating social relationships between house residents and the neighborhood residents. Recognizing and preserving the diversity effects of cultural heritage, will lead to cultural continuity in historical contexts. Considering the major policies of Iran, the revitalization and revitalization of cultural heritage, including historical buildings, despite recognizing the similarities aspect in the structure of the housing heritage of different historical periods, explaining the diversity of features and the significant differences between these houses in the restoration and regeneration plans will play an effective role. Also, identifying the diversity of residential heritage can explain the foundations of creativity in historic sites and provide a stimulus to the conservation and modernization of historical contexts and answer some of the officials and planners of the historic city of Isfahan that why it should be protect about 300 historical homes in Isfahan city? In fact, with regard to macro policies, after identifying diversifying aspects, we can provide categorization and explanation of the valuable components of these homes at three levels of body, function, and meaning. This categorization will be the basis for the development of residential heritage conservation planning. Thus, according to the components defined in the classification and codification system of them, the priorities of conservation in urban planning are determined. Often, the nature of theories and theoretical foundations of conservation, in spite of having general principles and perspectives, and in some global cases, can be defined for each building by the requirements of physical, functional and content characteristics. Recognition based on the differentiation aspects of effect, due to the various aspects, and sometimes rare and unique aspects of a building, will play a significant role in achieving the desired regeneration plan. This research attempts to answer the question of how to create diverse elements and distinctions in the physical organization of the architecture of historical buildings of Isfahan and explain the diversity of the indicator in order to understand the differences and differences in the physical organization of Isfahan's housing heritage. The main goal in answering the key question is to analyze the variability of the factors to distinguish the differences in the historic houses of this city in the physical organization and a comprehensive classification for historic homes with diverse indicator. This study has been conducted using descriptive-analytical method with the aim of developmental and using field observation, library studies and also data collection through interview and the findings have been analyzed according to qualitative method and through comparison and interpretation. Based on the research methodology, firstly, the diversity of residential heritage has been recognized, and then, considering the status of the system of classification of historical houses in the conservation process, we have analyzed the shortcomings and deficiencies of existing classification systems. Also, based on the specific question and purpose of the research, the diversity factors in the Isfahan Residential Heritage are distinguished by four factors of climate, religion, social status and owner's occupation, and ethnic subcultures of analysis and the obvious examples of diversity under each of the influential factors have been recognized. Previously, Ghasemi Sichani and Memarian have typified Qajar houses in Isfahan. In the article of "historical houses beyond housing implications in historical context of Isfahan", the suburban functions in the historic houses of Isfahan have also been analyzed. But until now, explaining the diversity aspects and distinctions in the Isfahan residential heritage has not been investigated, which is the innovation of this research. The result of the research shows that the influential factors of climate, religion, social status of the owner and ethnic subcultures in the Physical organization of residential heritage has been led to the creation of diverse and distinct aspects. Based on this, under the influential factor of climate, varieties of diverse species such as homespun houses, dwelling houses and houses with a garden pit pattern were identified. Under the influence of religion, Jewish homes with less space and altitude than Muslim homes, the houses of Armenians and the Muslim-backed houses with remarkable differences with other homes were also identified. In fact, the presence of religious minorities and the presence of certain neighborhoods in the past, the Armenian community (Jolfa), the ghetto (Zhobreh or Judaea), the Zoroastrian neighborhood (Gabrabad or Kuleparcheh), has been the main cause of the creation of physical distinctions in the historic houses of Isfahan Occupation and social status of the owner are other factors influencing the occurrence of diversity in Isfahan's residential heritage, which can be recognized in such areas as house-school, house-castle, master's houses and house-workshops in this area. Ethnic subcultures have also created a diverse and distinct structure in Isfahan's physical housing system, which can be found in Armenian homes, Bakhtiari tribal houses (Kurdish houses) and European homes in Isfahan.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2019/07/8 | Accepted: 2019/07/8 | Published: 2019/07/8

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