Volume 2, Issue 4 (3-2015)                   JRIA 2015, 2(4): 1-15 | Back to browse issues page

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Abstract:   (20811 Views)
In current time, modern architecture design opinion along with new generation of academic graduated architects has great influence on new buildings, such as mosques design. One of the most important effects is the distortion of shapes and space, which is headlined as new design view of mosque in architecture and society. Unlike the past which mosque buildings were followed by special tradition style in each era, there is much diversity of types and design methods, which it cannot be classify in tradition or any specific category by shape and form. In addition of extreme evolution on design and built process of contemporary buildings, this article is trying to have a specific overview in the orientation of mosque designing. Then classifying the indexes of this development with identification and on the other hand notifies the effective courses on mosque architecture process. Research questions are: can we suggest any features of Iranian current mosque design comparing to Islamic world design? What standards can we consider? What is the design style of contemporary mosques? And what is the specification of each? Many researchers have proposed approaches for classifying the effective streams on contemporary architecture of Islamic countries, particularly the modernist mosques. These approaches investigate the recognition of the principles of design, favorite variables of architects, and also their work product as architecture body. Each of these researches, in turn, has suggested different categories or for modernist mosques. For example, "Ismail Serage-aldin" in his article titled "classification of effective approaches in contemporary architecture of Islamic countries", divided this approach into five groups of popular approach, traditionalist approach, people-oriented approach, adaptable modernism approach, and modernist approach. These approaches have an effective role in different streams of architecture design in contemporary era, particularly in the designing of mosques. This article is aimed to recognize trends of designing mosques in contemporary era specifically and by identifying indicators of these changes classifies them and recognizes effective streams on the evolution era in the architecture of mosques. Therefore, after reviewing performed classifications, the desired attitudes for investigating works are introduced and tables are prepared for each of these works that have been analyzed in those works based on defined attitudes, and then by comparing tables an attempt is done in classification of works based on common characteristics in the table. At the end, those attitudes that have affected contemporary mosques are introduced as a group of indicators. For better recognition, some examples of these groups in Iran and the other countries will be introduced. The questions that have been asked in this research are: Can attitudes be introduced in designing Iranian contemporary mosques in comparison with Islam world? What criteria can be considered for this issue? What orientation do exist in designing contemporary mosques? And what are the characteristics of each of them? At first, the research process has been formed based on quantitative variables that have had a key role in recognizing mosques as modernist mosques. These variables are volume versus space, full and empty, physical development, plan pattern, facade, the average ceiling height, decorations, form, color, position, construction location and its time and then categorizing the amounts of variables has converted them to qualitative data and make it possible to divide them to some groups based on a integrated structure that in every group part of amounts are in similarity or proportionality with each other. Therefore, three groups of tables were prepared from characteristics of mosques during research. In first group, the table introduces the status of each variable in mosques second group separates the mosques with common characteristics and the last group introduces their properties. This classification that has been obtained from investigating 50 modernist mosques can indicate shape-physical approach in typology of modernist mosques in Islam world. Based on conducted investigation, a part of contemporary mosques that a typology was done about them are mosques that are outstanding in Islamic society or have introduced the meaning of mosque in a new body from physical perspective. These mosques have been classified into four categories based on shape typology and these categories are: white modernist mosque, pure mosques, form-oriented mosques, and hybrid modernist mosques. In white modernist mosques, the volume is not important and often takes a form of project site. In pure mosques against traditional mosque building, the architect aims to create a symbolic volume. The volumes are simple and Platonic. Especially, the cubic shape that has a background in Islamic tradition is used. In form-oriented mosques, the attention to external volume is very important so that ignoring internal space is resulted. The volume of these mosques usually includes complicated and innovative forms and architectural sculpture and pure forms are not applied. Asymmetrical and simple decorations, use of color and light shadow diversity are usual in these mosques. Hybrid modernist mosques are a combination of the former types that means each of their elements follow one of types and cannot be placed in any former types. On the other hand, they are a hybrid of the former types.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2015/05/27 | Accepted: 2015/05/27 | Published: 2015/05/27

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