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Momeni K. The Comparison between the Transparency Principle in the Form and Design of Safavid and Qajar Homes in Isfahan. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2018; 6 (1)
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-921-en.html
Abstract:   (765 Views)
Introduction:
The Transparency is a basic principle in Iranian architecture that has reached prosperity during the time. Isfahan is an important city in architecture because it has been as the political capital in the two important periods. So many valuable buildings have been built in these periods that the houses are more important between them.
 
Literature review:
The architecture was more transparent until the Qajar era but after that in Pahlavi era and contemporary architecture, it be used in different way and has lost the Iranian Islamic patterns. Unfortunately, this principle that has been improved fundamental and theoretical principles of Iranian architecture today will be ignored or less used in design and architecture. If these principles are also applied, its concept and appearance in architecture has changed and has been forgotten Iranian Islamic models. The authors try to answer these questions: How the transparency become manifest in the form of Isfahan traditional houses? How the transparency has been manifested in different era and in which era it has been more evident? Thus, due to this point that the Isfahan homes architecture has become more transparent during the time and different eras, this article studied the transparency principle in the houses forms of two important Isfahan eras.
 
Methodology:
This paper contains the parts are as follows: the theory part that introduces and defines the fundamental of transparency, and the field part that reviewing the principals that make the buildings more transparent in two different periods. So the theoretical part of paper, accomplished by using the library resources and the field studies is done by using authentic maps, direct observation of these houses and interview with experts. Numerous of significant historical houses related to Safavid and Qajar era has been reviewed because the transparency in Isfahan’s architecture is more manifested in these two eras. This comparison between these houses shows the difference of transparency in different periods. The collection of historic homes that have been registered with the National Monuments insist of 83 houses of the Qajar period, 38 houses related to the Safavid period, five houses related to Safavid- Qajar era and 12 houses from the Qajar- Pahlavi era. Among these houses, the buildings those are more impressive in architecture and their plans and map are existed, has selected to review. So 14 houses were evaluated.
 
Discussion:
So this paper has studied and compared the principle of transparency in the design of Safavid and Qajar's homes to recognize and reuse the transparency principle in the contemporary residential architecture. Reviewing different opinion and studies have been done about transparency; show that there are different aspects about this issue. The transparency in Europe and Islamic architecture is different but there are common in some concepts and factors. So it is necessary to set a clear definition. In this article transparency is a kind of design that contains “Reducing the Materials and Lightness”, “Opening the Space”," Permeability and Reflection", "Fluidity and Dynamism "," Hierarchy and Sequence” and “Visual Continuity”.
 
Results:
The transparency is appeared in Isfahan historical houses as the concepts such as “Reducing the Materials and Lightness”, “Opening the Space”," Permeability and Reflection", "Fluidity and Dynamism "," Hierarchy and Sequence” and “Visual Continuity”. Different strategies applied in designing the forms and body of building during the Qajar and Safavid period to create the transparency. So the transparency as a Basic and effective principle in Isfahan architecture, has become more obvious during the time and different periods
 
Conclusion:
The design of the historical houses of Isfahan becomes more and more transparent during the time. Models and strategies that are used in each period are derived from the previous strategies. But these strategies will be completed and more visible in the next period. An obvious example can be seen in the porch (Eivan) of these houses. During Safavid period the porch in addition to climate issues, has been created to opening the space, visual continuity, fluidity and dynamism and lightness in the building. This space applied and with small size in some walls of Safavid houses. But in Qajar houses, these patterns are more completed and developed than previous periods. The size, number of columns, width, height and even decoration of these spaces has increased and become more developed in Qajar houses. These two eras are common in some strategies that applied to make the building transparent. Some of these solutions are: using multiple courtyards, Eivancheh, Mahtabi, Hozkhaneh, and numerous vaults.
Finally; if the transparency is defined as “Reducing the Materials and Lightness”, “Opening the Space”," Permeability and Reflection", "Fluidity and dynamism "," Hierarchy and Sequence” and “Visual Continuity”, the Qajar architecture is considered as the evolved architecture. So it can be said that, Qajar architecture has improved the theories and patterns that applied in the design of Safavid houses and even in some cases has been created innovation in the forms of buildings.
     
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2018/07/7 | Accepted: 2018/07/7 | Published: 2018/07/7

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