Volume 4, Number 2 (9-2016)                   2016, 4(2): 1-16 | Back to browse issues page


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Raeisi M M. Evaluation and critique of research approaches in architecture and urbanism from Islamic perspective. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2016; 4 (2) :1-16
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-483-en.html

Abstract:   (2141 Views)

Each researcher while studying about a specific issue is influenced by certain philosophical foundations for the research process. These foundations are such as glasses that in fact, researcher looks at research topic from behind it. In scientific communities, these foundations are introduced with the term of «paradigm» which indicates researcher›s approach about issues such as ontological, epistemological and especially methodological assumptions. For example, researchers who believe in objective and positivistic approach, merely accept empirical methods as valid scientific methods and because of non-compliance with the objective oriented philosophical basis, know narrative or non-testable citations as invalid citations. In this article, in addition to introducing approaches (paradigms) affecting architecture and urbanism studies (including two objective and relative approaches), using logical-argumentative method, critique of them from the perspective of Islamic teachings (including philosophical and narrative teachings and etc.) is presented. During these critiques it is shown that neither of two objective and relative approaches does not provide acceptable foundations for applying in architecture and urbanism studies and both of them report only some parts of the truth with a reductive orientation. Accordingly, the strategy used in the body of this article, is a critical strategy which through it, these two approaches foundations are criticized from an Islamic perspective. Meanwhile in the conclusion by comparative comparison of these approaches, Islamic approache is explained too.
Most critiques of the objective approach are the results of this fact that this approach reduces research methods to experimental or empirical methods. Of course from Islamic perspective, empirical method is approved and this issue is discussed in some Quranic verses such as this verse: «Allah brought you out of your mothers› wombs, and gave you hearing, sight and hearts, in order that you be thankful» (Sura 16/ Verse 78). But in some other verses such as this verse, reduceing the methods to empirical methods is negated: «And when you said to Moses: ‹We will not believe in you until we see Allah openly, ‹ a thunderbolt struck you whilst you were looking» (Sura 2/ Verse 55). In addition, objective approach does not provide a reasonable analysis about the principle of causality and neglects the impact of non-material factors on material factors. But this impact has been discussed in numerous verses of the holy Quran such as these verses: «Had the people of the villages believed and been cautious, we would have opened upon them the blessings from heaven and earth. But they belied, and we seized them for what they earned» (Sura 7/ Verse 96); «Whosoever fears Allah, He will appoint for him a way out and provide for him from where he does not expect, Allah is sufficient for whosoever puts his trust in Him. Indeed, Allah brings about whatever He decrees. Allah has set a measure for all things» (Sura 65/ Verses 2-3).
On the other hand, most critiques of the relative approach are the results of this fact that this approach neglects of a non-relative truth which is called «fetrat: nature» that exists in all human beings: «Be devoted to the upright religion. It is harmonious with the nature which Allah has designed for people. The design of Allah cannot be altered. Thus is the upright religion, but many people do not know» (Sura 30/ Verses 30).
After evaluating the relative and objective approaches, in conclusion chapter, the Islamic approach is explained. According to the results of this chapter, from the Islamic view, the relation between researcher and the subject of research depends on the nature of the subject. So that in some subjects (especially descriptive and experimental subjects) independence of researcher and in others (especially normative subjects) interaction between researcher and subject is required. In addition, in conclusion chapter, topics such as foundations, resources and research levels in three cited approaches (objective, relative and Islamic approaches) are investigated.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2016/09/24 | Accepted: 2016/09/24 | Published: 2016/09/24

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