Volume 3, Issue 3 (12-2015)                   2015, 3(3): 65-88 | Back to browse issues page

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Balilan Asl L, Doustar F. The Effect of the Cemeteries in the Development of Urban Structure of Tabriz City since Ilkhanid Era to Safavid Era. Iran University of Science & Technology. 2015; 3 (3) :65-88
URL: http://jria.iust.ac.ir/article-1-273-en.html
Abstract:   (3110 Views)

Tabriz has an old history that thanks to its proper geographical and climatical condition. This geographical situation has been made Tabriz to a permanent habitat center. This city in the early centuries of Islam has extended on the central mosque, bazaar, square and government palace. In the year 663 A.H, Abagha Khan has moved the capital from Maragheh to Tabriz. In the Ilkhanid era except for a short time at the time of the monarchy Oljaito (Mohammad Khodabandeh) since the 703-716 A.H that Tabriz and Soltaniyeh were the capital simultaneously, at other times, Tabriz has been capital and the seat of government. At the time of Ghazan Khan has have the most architectural and urban changes. After Ilkhanids in the early of 8th century, Jalayerian was also ruled this city and governed some parts of Iran. In the late 8th century that Teimorian was ruled out Samarkand and Bokhara, Tabriz was continually important city and important political-cultural center And after that in the 9th and 10th A.H centuries and also in the Qoyunlus era till mid government of Shah Tahmasb (Safavid era) in the year of 962 A.H. Tabriz was the genuine capital city of Iran. Therefore with transferring the capital city from Maraghe by Abagha Khan to Tabriz in the Ilkhanid era, it becomes more than ever attractive for mystics, poets, saints and ministers from different parts of Iran and also neighbor countries. Also during these eras many travelers has visited Tabriz and have presented many useful information in the form of itineraries. These important people during their lives time caused to creation of some novel architectural spaces like: Khangah and Zavieh in the city that after the death of them we are witnessing the formation of the tombs and Hazireh as new urban spaces after Islam. We know that in different cultures, different approaches has taken to the deads And Iran after Islam, is the place that in which deals to burial and the death, tomb and in the following the cemetery has a special importance. In addition, cemeteries depending on the people who are buried there, take different spatial qualities and since the “undoubtedly the tomb is the most important monument after mosque in the Islamic era which has been seen in the most cities of Iran.” These novel spaces in many cases had an essential role in development or city construction. This process goes-on until the middle of Safavid government and reputation of Tabriz city as the capital has continued. According to thesis of this article the tombs of mystics, poets, saints and ministers could have significant effect in the development of urban structure of Tabriz city. Proving the thesis of this research, in addition to the existence of multiple tombs of these people that have been buried in different parts of this city, there are many reliable books like Rozat al-jinan by Hafez Hossein Kabalayi in the year 975 A.H, Rozat al-Athar by Molla-Hashri in the year 1101 A.H, Olad al-Athar by Seyyed-Mohammad Sadegh Tabatabayi Tabrizi in the year 1300 A.H and Manzar al-Oliya by Mohammad Tabrizi in the year 1315 A.H. We can present a rigorous classification from mystics, poets, saints and ministers according to a study of mentioned books to fit the 5 periods between 7th to 10th centuries. Also to ensure more, other small studies about the research subject is investigated named literature. Now the question of this article arises that: whether the Tombs of mystics, poets, saints and ministers have the effect in the development of urban structure of Tabriz city in the capital times of this city that’s Ilkhanid Era to Safavid Era? Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the effect of cemeteries in the development of urban structure of Tabriz city since seventh century to tenth century of hegira that coincides with Ilkhanid government to Safavid in Tabriz. For doing so, introducing books including Rozat al-jinan, Rozat al-Athar, Olad al-Athar and Manzar al-Oliya seems necessary. For fulfilling the research main goal, the data were collected by descriptive method using the liberary and field approach (implement) also the collected data were analyzed in analytical and comparative way. In order to respond to the research question, a method involving four steps was used: 1.classification of the people and cemeteries, 2.using manner of introducing the cemeteries in order to identify the Tabriz architectural and urban elements in the past, 3-referring to the travel books subjects in different periods and 4-adaptation of the former steps findings and responding to the research question.

The findings of this research revealed that cemeteries were effective factors in construction of Ghazanid fort in Ilkhanid period. Also, cemeteries of the famous people had a significant impact on development of some routes such as the connective route of the two complexes of Rabe Rashidi and Shanb Ghazan in the eastern and western parts of the city and location of some architectural outstanding elements like Dameshqiye building, Shah Hossein Valy shrine and Kamal Khojandi’s convent and consequently urban spaces such as Seyyed Hamzeh complex which is known as Magbarat al-Shoara. In addition, existence of Hazireh and aggregation of tombs have been led to the formation of famous cemeteries like Sorkhab, Gajil, Charandab and Qolle in the city of Tabriz.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Subject- oriented researches in Islamic architecture and urbanism, eg. Spatial-geometrical ideas, symbols and ornaments
Received: 2015/11/29 | Accepted: 2015/11/29 | Published: 2015/11/29

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